The Israel Heritage Room is the first of the modern Nationality Rooms to have been built on the third floor of the Cathedral of Learning, after a long building hiatus for Nationality Rooms. The genesis of this Room was decades in the making, however. An archeological approach is one of the emphases in the Room's wall decorations and display case (with 1st century CE wine jars and a reproduction of one of the Dead Sea Scrolls).
A floor mosaic is a small sectional copy of the mosaics at Beth Alpha Synagogue in Galilee, and the chalkboard cover paintings reproduce three scenes out of the many that were at the Dura Europos Synagogue (present day Syria). Post Biblical Judaism is shown with several Talmuddic quotations, carved in stone and wood and the Ten Commandments in Hebrew are affixed to the inside of the door.